Your Councillors

 

 

DRAFT WALKING AND CYCLING STRATEGY

November 2015

 

 

 

 

Contents

 

1.0              Introduction                                                                                        page 1

2.0              National and Local Policy Overview                                                   page 3

3.0              The Benefits of Walking and Cycling                                                  page x

4.0              Walking and Cycling in Maidstone Borough Today                           page x

5.0              Improving the Walking and Cycling Network                                     page x

6.0              Maintenance of the Cycle Network                                                    page x

7.0              Safer Walking and Cycling                                                                  page x

8.0              Promoting Walking and Cycling in Maidstone Borough                    page x

9.0              Monitoring the Walking and Cycling Strategy                                   page x

10.0          Proposed Development of the Walking and Cycling Network           page x

 

Appendix 1: Traffic Flows on Key Radial Routes                                           page x

Appendix 2: Pedestrian and Cycle Crash Statistics                                       page x

 

NB Photos/illustrations to be added to report


 


1.0                   Introduction

1.1       This Walking and Cycling Strategy provides the evidence base for walking actions W1 to W6 and cycling actions C1 to C12 in the Transport Action Plan set out in the Maidstone Integrated Transport Strategy 2011 – 2031 (hereafter referred to as the ITS).  It brings together policies and related actions to promote walking and cycling and the delivery of related infrastructure in Maidstone Borough, with the aim of increasing the proportion of journeys made by these active travel modes. Furthermore, the Strategy provides a basis for making bids for improvements to walking and cycling infrastructure in Maidstone through the Local Enterprise Partnership (Local Sustainable Transport Fund) and other transport funding awarded to Kent County Council (KCC) by the Department for Transport.

1.2       The emphasis of the Strategy has been on identifying the improvements required to deliver a comprehensive and well-connected cycle network (rather than focusing in detail on pedestrian-only facilities), which will help to make both cycling and walking more attractive alternatives for journeys within the Borough.  The Strategy has been drafted by Maidstone Borough Council (MBC) with support from the Maidstone Cycle Forum and KCC.  The document will act as a tool to assist in the delivery of the Transport Vision for Maidstone and the following ITS objectives in particular:

·                         Objective 1: Enhancing and encouraging sustainable travel choices including:

A: The development, maintenance and enhancement of walking and cycling provision, through network improvements and encouraging uptake amongst the population;

C: Promotion and education regarding walking, cycling and public transport travel options;

E: Place sustainable travel options at the heart of all new developments within Maidstone, to ensure a fully integrated network that puts pedestrians, cyclists and public transport users at the centre of any transport proposals.

·         Objective 3: Ensure the transport system supports the growth projected by Maidstone’s Local Plan.

·         Objective 4: Reducing the air quality impacts of transport.

·         Objective 5: Ensure the transport network considers the needs of all users, providing equal accessibility by removing barriers to use.

1.3         The overarching aim of the Walking and Cycling Strategy is, in addition to supporting the Transport Vision for Maidstone, to provide a framework for delivery of the Department for Transport’s Cycling Delivery Plan[1] (draft published October 2014) at the local level.  Our local vision supports the national vision, i.e. that:

Walking and cycling become the natural choices for shorter journeys in Maidstone Borough – or as part of a longer journey – regardless of age, gender, fitness level or income.

1.4       The Strategy is aligned with the draft Maidstone Borough Local Plan and is supported by the Draft Green and Blue Infrastructure Strategy which promotes the use of urban green space and Public Rights of Way for active travel.  In facilitating the use of non-motorised transport it also contributes to the objectives of the Sustainable Community Strategy, Air Quality Action Plan, Draft Neighbourhood Plans and KCC Environmental Strategy.

1.5       The Walking and Cycling Strategy encourages active travel and identifies the shared commitment of MBC and KCC to provide an enhanced network for these modes.  It acknowledges that, in particular, levels of cycling in Maidstone are low at present and that whilst the Borough has some cycle routes which link Maidstone town centre with the surrounding suburban areas; these are often incomplete or require upgrading.  In the rural areas of the Borough there are very few designated safer routes for cyclists.  There is a lack of cycle parking facilities at some key destinations.

1.6       The benefits which can be derived from promoting walking and cycling as low cost, efficient, healthy and environmentally friendly modes of transport for people of a variety of ages and abilities are wide ranging.  These include not just their contribution towards improved mental and physical wellbeing amongst local residents, but also their positive impact on the efficient and reliable operation of the local highway network, and helping to realise a better environment for everyone through reduced air pollution and carbon dioxide emissions. The Strategy identifies a range of measures and interventions to make cycling a more attractive proposition in all areas of the Borough, and especially for shorter journeys.

1.7       It is recognised that the Strategy’s focus is on the Maidstone area.  This is where most people live, where most new development will take place in the coming years and where the infilling of gaps in cycle facilities will make the greatest contribution towards achieving modal shift from private car journeys.  However, there is also merit in developing longer distance cycle routes to encourage inter-urban travel and cycle tourism and so the identification of opportunities for improving cycle linkages into neighbouring authorities has been another focus of this Strategy.  It is intended to complement the measures and interventions identified in the cycle strategies prepared by neighbouring authorities in conjunction with KCC.

 

2.0                   National and Local Policy Overview

2.1         This Strategy is informed by a range of national and local policies and strategies.  This chapter briefly outlines the current policy context within which the Strategy has been prepared.

National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF)

2.2         The NPPF[2] sets out in broad terms the approach that local authorities should follow in preparing land use and transport plans, to which this Walking and Cycling Strategy is aligned.  In particular, para 17 of the NPPF states that a core principle is that planning should actively manage patterns of growth to make the fullest possible use of public transport, walking and cycling.  Developments should be located where the need to travel will be minimised (para 34) and designed so that ‘priority is given to pedestrian and cycle movements’, with ‘safe and secure layouts which minimise conflicts between traffic and cyclists or pedestrians’.

National Walking and Cycling Policy Overview

2.3         The All Party Parliamentary Cycling Group published the Get Britain Cycling[3] report in 2013. This marked the outcome of an inquiry which was informed by Members from both Houses of Parliament. The report aims to enable more people across the UK to take up cycling, to cycle more often and to cycle more safely. It seeks to identify the obstacles that must be overcome to achieve these objectives and suggests measures to be undertaken by central and local government, as well as the wider business and third sectors. Recommendations are numerous and divided into five broad topics:-

·         A new priority for investing public funds - including the creation of a cycling budget of at least £10 per person per year, increasing to £20.

·         Redesigning our roads, streets and communities - including a statutory requirement for developments to be designed for cyclists and pedestrians.

·         Safe driving and safe speed limits - including the extension of locally determined speed limits.

·         Training and education - including the provision of cycle training for people of all ages and backgrounds.

·         Political leadership - including the provision of a cross-departmental Cycling Action Plan.

2.4         The DfT published a draft Cycling Delivery Plan in 2014. The document identifies the ambition of Government to do more to encourage people across England to cycle. The Government wants to see hundreds of thousands more people taking advantage of the benefits of cycling and walking. The Cycling Delivery Plan is a 10 year plan for England and recognises that a step change in cycling cannot be achieved overnight; this requires strong leadership, commitment and long term planning for incremental change that develops an environment in which cycling is the norm. A subsequent commitment has been set in the Infrastructure Act (2015) which requires Government to prepare a national Cycling and Walking Investment Strategy.

2.5         The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) produced guidance in November 2012 (PHG41)[4]; on Local Measures to Promote Walking and Cycling as Forms of Travel or Recreation which has been taken into account within this strategy.

Local Walking and Cycling Policy Overview

2.4                   The third Local Transport Plan for Kent (2011-16) sets out Kent County Council (KCC)’s policies and delivery plans for the management and improvement of the local transport network. It has five principal themes, all of which include walking and cycling as an aspect; ‘Growth Without Gridlock’, ‘A Safer and Healthier County’, ‘Supporting Independence’, ‘Tackling a Changing Climate’ and ‘Enjoying Life in Kent’. The Plan seeks to support housing and employment growth whilst managing the County’s highways and Public Rights of Way, many of which include cycle routes. The Plan supports active travel and the development of cycling as a transport mode.

 

2.5                   The Countryside and Coastal Access Improvement Plan (2013-2017) is KCC’s strategy to increase usage and enjoyment of Public Rights of Way (PRoW) and improve access to green spaces in Kent. The County’s extensive network of paths is a great asset which can be developed further to provide infrastructure for cyclists as well as pedestrians in both urban and rural areas.  

 

2.6                   The Maidstone Integrated Transport Strategy (ITS), for which this Walking and Cycling Strategy provides the evidence base for measures supporting active travel modes, sets out the vision for transport in the Borough between 2011 and 2031.  The ITS seeks to achieve this vision through addressing existing transport problems in a holistic manner, encouraging a modal shift from the private car and identifying the transport solutions necessary to support the development aspirations of the draft Maidstone Borough Local Plan over the same period.  The enhancement of cycling and walking provision is one of the key ITS priorities.

 

2.7                   This Strategy is also supported by the draft Green and Blue Infrastructure Strategy (December 2013) which promotes the use of urban green space and Public Rights of Way for active travel.  In facilitating the use of non-motorised transport it also contributes to the objectives of the following strategies/action plans:

•          Maidstone Sustainable Community Strategy 2009-2020 (July 2013)

•          Maidstone Air Quality Action Plan (2010)

•          Climate Change Framework 2011-2016 (year???)

•          Draft Neighbourhood Plans for Boughton Monchelsea, Boxley, Broomfield and Kingswood, Coxheath, Harrietsham, Headcorn, Lenham, Loose Parish, Marden, North Loose, Staplehurst and Sutton Valence

•          Kent Environment Strategy – A Strategy for Environment, Health & Economy:  Consultation Draft (July 2015)


 

3.0                   The Benefits of Walking and Cycling

3.1         Walking and cycling are low cost, efficient, healthy and environmentally friendly modes of travel.  The benefits which can be derived from promoting these modes for people of a variety of ages and abilities are wide ranging.  These can be broadly grouped into economic, health and social benefits.  This chapter discusses each of these in turn.

Economic Benefits

3.2                   Active travel modes benefit the economy through encouraging local trade, due to the increasing number of people travelling on local streets and routes.  In urban areas they can improve the efficiency of the transport network through reducing congestion, and in turn the air pollution that is generated by vehicular traffic.  In short active travel modes have the potential to make a major contribution to supporting the Borough’s high streets, making them quieter, cleaner, more liveable and more prosperous.

 

3.3                   Kent’s visitor economy is reported to be worth £3.4bn according to research commissioned by Visit Kent, with 57 million visitors per year. Over 5 million of these visitors are estimated to be attracted to the County’s cycling offer. Maidstone Borough itself attracts over 4 million visitors per year, spending more than £250 million in the local economy.  A Destination Management Plan was produced for the Borough Council in 2015[5].  One of its priorities is to make the River Medway an attraction in its own right and promote its use as a green corridor for cyclists and walkers, alongside the development of other themed cycling/walking trails in Maidstone Borough.

 

3.4                   Existing leisure cycling opportunities in the Borough include Mote Park, which is a short distance from Maidstone town centre via National Cycle Route 17 (NCR17).  NCR17 provides a signed cycle route between Rochester and Ashford via Maidstone along a mixture of quiet lanes and traffic-free sections.  From Mote Park, cyclists can cycle northeast to meet the Pilgrims Cycle Trail which connects Rochester Cathedral to Canterbury Cathedral through the Kent Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.  North of Maidstone town centre, NCR17 climbs Blue Bell Hill before cutting across the countryside to arrive in Rochester by the River Medway and Cathedral.  Further information about these opportunities is available from the Explore Kent website.

 

3.5                   There are a number of local cycling clubs, including the San Fairy Ann Cycling Club (with more than 500 members) and MCC Offroad which organise and participate in numerous cycling events in the Maidstone area and further afield.

 

3.6                   Cycling is reported to be worth £2.9bn per annum to the UK economy, with the average cyclist contributing £230 per annum through activities including bicycle retail and related employment[6].

Health Benefits

3.7                   The role of active travel modes in helping to create liveable towns and cities and promoting improved health/social inclusion is now becoming widely recognised by all tiers of government and health authorities.  The link between transport, physical activity and health has been highlighted by the British Medical Assocation (BMA)[7] and warnings about the health consequences of an increasingly sedentary society are widely reported.  It has been estimated that the cost of transport-related physical inactivity in England totals £9.8 billion per year. This is in addition to the estimated £2.5 billion annual healthcare cost of treating obesity5.

 

3.8                   The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) identifies that the health benefits associated with active travel, include:-

·         improved mental health and wellbeing;

·         improved physical fitness; and

·         the prevention of chronic diseases and health conditions, which include coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, cancer and obesity.

3.9                   Both cycling and walking are effective ways of increasing and integrating levels of physical activity into everyday life. Many people have yet to experience the benefits of regular cycling, especially for local journeys.  In the UK 67% of trips by all modes are less than five miles (well within an hour’s cycle ride in an urban area), and 38% are less than two miles[8], or within 40 minutes on foot. Therefore cycling is a potential mode for many of these trips.

 

[Walking and cycling isochrones from PTDOSC “alternatives to using a car” report to be inserted.]

 

3.10               A recent study by the DfT into the value for money of the Cycle City Ambition Grant and the Cycling in National Parks Grant found that the combined Benefit to Cost Ratio (BCR) of each of these funding streams was 5.5:1, which was considered to represent very high value for money. Around 60% of these benefits were accounted for by improved physical fitness, with much of the remainder being associated with journey quality and congestion relief[9].

 

3.11               Walking and cycling in urban areas can improve air quality through reducing congestion, and the air pollution that is generated by motor traffic, which represents the majority of air pollutants in Maidstone Borough. An Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) was designated in 2001 which covers the entire urban conurbation of Maidstone.  Within the AQMA, the automatic air quality monitoring station at the A229 Bridge Gyratory recorded a mean concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) of 43.2µg/m3 in the year 2012[10], above the maximum annual mean of 40µg/m3 as required by national air quality regulations.  Of the 65 other (non-automatic) monitoring sites across the Borough, nine sites exceeded the maximum annual mean in the year 2012, including Pilgrims Way, Detling which is outside the AQMA. 

 

3.12               The above results highlight air quality concerns in the vicinity of main roads in the Borough. Poor air quality affects health, contributing towards cardiovascular disease and respiratory illness, adding further to NHS costs.  It has been reported that air pollution reduces life expectancy by 7-8 months, which has the equivalent UK economic impact of £20 billion per year.[11]  The potential for walking and cycling in Maidstone Borough to help increase life expectancy and decrease the economic impact of air pollution generated by vehicular traffic is therefore evident.

Social Benefits

3.13               Both walking and cycling are activities which can be fun and provide an opportunity for social interaction, unlike single occupancy car journeys.  They enable a better appreciation of the Borough’s urban and rural environment.  Cycling provides access to routes and locations which are often too far for many to walk. Bicycles can coexist well with other users in residential streets and town centres, unlike the severance effect which can be caused by busy motor traffic routes.

 

3.14               As well as enabling exercise and recreation, cycling can also be a faster option for short journeys in congested urban environments.  It is also a low cost transport option and therefore accessible to most people, promoting social inclusion.  By reducing or removing the costs of car ownership, cycling has the potential to be an attractive option for young people in particular, giving them independence and increasing their ability to access education, employment, shopping, healthcare and (longer distance) public transport opportunities.

 


 

4.0                   Walking and Cycling in Maidstone Borough Today

Existing Cycle Network

4.1                   The Borough’s existing cycle network links the town centre to most suburban areas and community facilities, including several schools, Maidstone East railway station and Mote Park. National Cycle Network Route 17 (NCR17) provides an 11 mile leisure/commuter link (approximately half off-carriageway) between Maidstone and Rochester.  Via Mote Park, Weavering Street and Hockers Lane, NCR17 connects to the Pilgrims Cycle Trail at Detling in the North Downs. At present, NCR17 connects with NCR1 (Inverness to Dover) in Rochester and ends in Ashford, but KCC has plans to extend the network by connecting to NCR2 (Dover to St Austell) on the South Coast.

 

4.2                   Maidstone also has a Regional Route 12 (RR12) which originates in the town centre and extends along the A20 London Road into Tonbridge and Malling. A section of the route within Maidstone Borough is traffic free and provides good linkages to local schools in the residential area of Allington.

 

4.3                   Limited cycle parking facilities are provided at locations within the Maidstone town centre shopping area, as well as cycle stands at Maidstone East and West railway stations and at KCC Sessions House and Invicta House.  In addition, cycle lockers are available at Maidstone East railway station.  Outside the town centre, some neighbourhood shopping areas are provided with cycle stands and Bearsted, Lenham, Marden and Staplehurst railway stations have well-used cycle parking facilities.

 

4.4                   Existing walking and cycling routes and facilities within the Maidstone urban area are illustrated in the Maidstone Walking and Cycling Map published by Explore Kent in 2012.  This map is not available electronically although hard copies are available.

 

4.5                   There are a number of issues which currently constrain the attractiveness of walking and cycling within Maidstone Borough:

 

·         Accessibility – in many areas the pedestrian network does not currently provide equal access for all users.  Dropped kerbs and tactile paving to assist the mobility and visually impaired may be unavailable, and the width of footways may in some cases be too narrow (whether in terms of their actual width, or their usable width due to the presence of sign columns or street furniture) to enable their use by wheelchairs and mobility scooters for example.  Some routes are stepped without having a ramped alternative.

·         Connectivity – Linkages from west to east Maidstone via the town centre are limited, although the situation has recently improved with the refurbishment of the pedestrian bridge connecting Maidstone East and Maidstone Barracks railway stations.  Subways are often flooded due to inadequate drainage systems and maintenance.  There are currently no designated cycle routes in Tovil and Loose, to the south of the town centre, and to the west in Fant.  Safer routes for cyclists to Maidstone West railway station and from the east to the schools and college at Oakwood Park are currently absent.

·         Safety – safety concerns are frequently a barrier to people choosing to walk or cycle for some journeys.  There are few traffic free cycle paths in the Borough and new cyclists may lack the confidence to share road space with motor traffic. Where walking and cycling routes lack lighting and natural surveillance, this may be another deterrent to the use of these modes.  In winter, walking and cycling routes outside of the main shopping and pedestrian areas may not be gritted and this is another deterrent to the habitual use of active modes.

·         Secure cycle parking – although considerable progress has been made in recent years, the availability of secure cycle parking at key locations such as shopping areas and railway stations can be limited.

 

Existing Cycling Activity

4.6                   KCC provides year on year monitoring of cycling trips across Kent from inner urban cordons and automatic traffic counts. There are currently only two fixed cycle counters for Maidstone, one on the A20 outside the Kent Police traffic headquarters, and the other in Mote Park, on NCR17. More counters are needed at strategic locations in the urban area to monitor trip data. This will help gauge the success of future improvements to the cycling network.

 

4.7                   In Maidstone, the monitoring of inner cordon cycle counters reveals the rate of cycling….[data awaited from KCC.]

[DfT Annual Average Daily Flow data for key radial routes to be analyses and appended.]

 

 


 

5.0                   Improving the Walking and Cycling Network

5.1                   As outlined in chapter xx of the ITS, the Council’s targets for active modes are to:

·         Increase the cycling mode share of all work trips made by Borough residents from 0.8% in 2011 to more than 2% of all work trips by 2021 and more than 3% by 2031.

·         Increase the walking mode share of all work trips made by Borough residents from 8% in 2011 to more than 10% of all work trips by 2021 and more than 12% by 2031.

5.2                   This Walking and Cycling Strategy identifies four main objectives to achieve these targets:

 

1.      Creating new links – seeking new opportunities to extend routes to more people;

2.      Maintenance of the cycle route network – looking after what we already have, and improving it;

3.      Creating a safer environment for walkers and cyclists – designing safer routes and providing road safety education for motorists and non-motorised users alike; and

4.      Spreading the word – raising awareness of existing and emerging facilities available to walkers and cyclists.

 

5.3                   In terms of creating new cycling links within the Borough, which will also benefit walkers, proposals will be developed with the following strategic long-term aims in mind:

·         “Filling in of the gaps” to create a fully integrated urban cycle network, with radial routes joined across the town centre.  Key destinations (e.g. schools, colleges, hospitals, shopping centres, visitor attractions) and new housing and employment sites will be integrated into the cycle network.

·         The creation of an orbital walking and cycling route around the Maidstone urban area, linking to the town centre via radial routes.  This would be delivered through the upgrading of existing footpath networks where possible to provide cycle linkages, or alternatively along quiet lanes, within the following areas in particular:

o   To the southeast of the town, between Langley and Loose, incorporating Boughton Monchelsea;

o   To the south, within the Loose Valley Conservation Area and Hayle Park;

o   To the west, within the Medway Valley and on Hermitage Lane (linking with Barming railway station); 

o   To the north, from Hermitage Lane to Sandling via Allington Lock; and

o   To the east, via the Len Valley north of Otham.

·         The creation of cycle routes from rural service centres and smaller settlements to transport hubs (where new/improved cycle parking will be provided), along a mixture of quiet lanes and segregated shared use footways, such as:

o   To rural railway stations (Headcorn, Staplehurst, Marden, Yalding, East Farleigh,  Hollingbourne, Harrietsham, Lenham); and

o   To bus stops on corridors where frequent interurban services are available or are planned as part of the ITS (e.g. A26 Tonbridge Road, A249 Sittingbourne Road).

·         The creation of a themed rural circular cycle route (perhaps “Maidstone Ring” or similar) to encourage leisure cycling and exploration of the Borough’s rural attractions.  This would complement the existing NCR17/Pilgrims Cycle Trail and improve connectivity between rural service centres by cycle.

5.4                   The above principles, and the guidance gratefully received from the Maidstone Cycle Forum, have informed the development of the detailed Action Plan presented in section 10.  These detailed actions feed into the high level Transport Action Plan presented in chapter XX of the ITS.  In respect of the cycle network the ITS actions are:

Action W1:  Provision of accessible pedestrian routes for all users.

Action W2:  Improve pedestrian accessibility across the River Medway in Maidstone town centre.

Action W3: Implement public realm improvement schemes within the town centre, such that pedestrian access is the primary mode within the central core of Maidstone.

Action C1: Maintain and further develop a strategic cycle network, connecting the town centre to key facilities and residential areas.

Action C2:  Maintain and further develop cycle routes in rural service centres, connecting local amenities and transport hubs (rail stations and bus stops) to housing.

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


5.5                   The objectives of network maintenance, creating a safer cycling environment and spreading the word are explored further in Sections 6, 7 and 8 respectively.

 


 

6.0                   Maintenance of the Walking and Cycling Network

6.1                   Unless new and existing walking and cycling facilities are maintained to an appropriate standard they will quickly fall into disrepair and will not be used.  In residential areas, regular street cleaning may keep footways running parallel to motor traffic routes clear of debris, and surface defects may be promptly identified and repaired.  However, the maintenance regime for off-carriageway routes is likely to be more limited. 

 

6.2                   Cycle routes require specific maintenance, including the regular cleansing of gullies and kerb lines as well as the cutting back of vegetation to preserve available width and sight lines.  Surface defects should be repaired before they become a hazard. Road accident debris such as glass and overgrown vegetation can present hazards to cyclists, resulting in punctured tyres, compromised route alignments or obstacles, all of which could risk the safety of a cyclist and put them in conflict with other road users.

 

6.3                   KCC has primary responsibility for the co-ordination of highways and Public Rights of Way maintenance. It works with third party landowners including MBC, where required, to achieve maintenance objectives. KCC’s maintenance programme is determined on the basis of information from regular inspections, annual surveys using specialist equipment, and reports from councillors, parish councils, community groups and residents. Road surfaces are surveyed by KCC Highway Inspectors in a manner which takes into account the needs of cyclists; for example, by giving appropriate attention to the two metre strip alongside the kerb line where most cyclists ride. In constructing and maintaining cycle routes, the County Council refers to guidance outlined in TRL Application Guide AG26 (Version 2)[12].

 

6.4                   It is KCC’s intention to produce a cycle route maintenance schedule for off road cycle routes, subject to funding. This will include the use of volunteers, such as Sustrans Rangers, as well as dedicated contractors. Sustrans Rangers help to maintain the cycle network in a number of ways, including placing temporary signs, reporting faults, undertaking small-scale vegetation clearance and organising work days for more ambitious maintenance projects.

Action C3:  MBC and KCC to work with partners to ensure the regular maintenance of all cycle tracks within the Borough.

 
 

 

 


 


7.0                   Safer Walking and Cycling

Cycle Training

7.1                   National Standard Cycle Training (Bikeability) is provided across Kent by KCC and local School Games Partnerships. The training courses are structured for primary and secondary age school children in Years 4 to 9. The courses give children the skills to make safer choices when cycling and to enjoy the freedom of riding a bike. Bikeability courses are booked directly by schools.

 

7.2                   Bikeability comprises three levels of competency-based cycle training. Level 1 is aimed at the basic bicycle control skills that are required to cycle safely in any environment. Level 2 is delivered on quiet roads and teaches participants the skills necessary to take a basic on-road journey and includes a variety of junctions. Level 3 tackles busy traffic situations and complex junctions.  Importantly, participants must demonstrate competence at each level before they progress to the next.

 

7.3                  

Action C4(a): All Year 6 children will have access to Level 1 and 2 Bikeability training, and children in Years 7 to 9 will have access to Level 3 training.

Action C4(b): Adult cycle training will continue to be offered, through initiatives including work place travel planning.

 

 
Adult cycle training courses are also available. Corporate, group and individual training courses can be arranged and further information is available on KCC’s website[13].

 

 

 

 

Road Safety

7.4                   A key barrier to the use of active travel modes are people’s concerns about road safety.  Traffic free, segregated cycle routes are not available in all parts of the Borough.  Footways can be narrow or absent and lighting is not always available which can make walking an intimidating experience after dark.

 

7.5                   KCC undertake regular road safety campaigns targeted at different road user groups…[recent examples to be cited.]

 

7.6                   Plots of Personal Injury Collisions (PICs) involving pedestrians and cyclists are included.

7.7         These data plots will be reviewed in detail to identify significant clusters of PICs involving non-motorised users and to analyse the main causes of these collisions.  This review will be used to develop a priority list of locations (e.g. road junctions, pedestrian crossing locations) where the upgrading of pedestrian and cycle facilities is required.

Action W4:  Identify priority areas for implementation of safety improvements to reduce road traffic collisions involving pedestrians and cyclists.

 
 

 

 


 


8.0                   Promoting Walking and Cycling in Maidstone Borough

8.1                   The Council recognises that providing new walking and cycling routes alone will not dramatically increase the use of active travel modes in the Borough.  Action to create a pro-active travel culture is needed in a range of areas which include land use and transport planning, regeneration, leisure, health and education. Promotion of walking and cycling will not only involve improved engineering measures and safety but also training, publicity and raising awareness amongst a range of different audiences.

 

8.2                   First and foremost, KCC and MBC’s websites need to be kept updated to enable local residents and visitors to access the latest information on walking and cycling routes and facilities.   The Maidstone walking and cycling map should be updated and made available both electronically and in paper format, with copies distributed to the visitor information centre, tourist attractions, hotels, large employers and schools.

 

8.3                   Efficient wayfinding can encourage walking and cycling through providing people with the information they need to navigate the town successfully, and understand the journey times between locations. Having clearly branded, consistent, wayfinding throughout the Maidstone central area not only provides information and reassurance to those less familiar with the area, but also adds to the overall experience of the public realm.  All cycle routes throughout the Borough should be fully signposted for the benefit of new cyclists and those who are unfamiliar with the area.

 

8.4                   As well as walking, cycling should form a key component of school and workplace Travel Plans and local clubs and cycle shops could help to promote cycling within the borough through active promotion and use of the local network.  Travel Plans will be encouraged as they can include commitment to improving cycling facilities like secure parking, bicycle lockers or the provision of shower facilities for large employers. In 2011 Kent County Council produced new best practice guidance on travel plans.[14] Link is broken, KCC (Tay Arnold) to confirm.

 

8.5                   With respect to school travel planning specifically, MBC is a sponsor of the KM Charity Group ‘Walk to School’ which seeks to encourage more parents and children to walk to school. Across the County since its inception, the Charity has resulted in:

·         40,000 children and families being involved;

·         600,000 green journeys annually; and

·         250,000 school run car journeys removed. 

 

8.6                   Schemes such as the above contribute greatly to reducing traffic congestion and these achievements will be built on through the appointment of a “school travel plan champion” within MBC to work with schools and KCC to further reduce car trips undertaking the “school run”.

 

8.7                   KCC will continue to develop and maintain a range of publications that will cover both the local and county cycle network and successful recent initiatives, such as Sky Ride Local. during National Bike Week, will be repeated wherever possible.

 

8.8                   It is important that the requirements of planning applications are standardised and clarified so that cycling can be promoted through the development control process.  In particular it is essential that new residential properties and other developments (such as employment, retail, healthcare and educational uses) provide secure cycle parking/storage areas close to the building entrance/exit.  In respect of residential properties, for example, although a cycle locked in a shed at the end of a garden is stored within the curtilage of the property as required by the Kent & Medway Structure Plan 2006: SPG4 Vehicle Parking Standards[15], it is less likely to be used than one stored close to the front door.  The provision of secure cycle storage should be managed via the development control process in the same way as car parking is managed.  Equally important is the provision of attractive pedestrian and cycle routes within new developments, with good natural surveillance and crossing facilities to integrate with the surrounding neighbourhood. 

 

8.9                   With the support of KCC’s Cycling Officer, the Maidstone Cycling Forum was re-established in 2015. The Forum brings together Members and officers from the Council, representatives of organisations with an interest in cycling and interested members of the public.  Its goal is to “help create a cycle-friendly culture in Maidstone, where residents and visitors of all ages and abilities choose to cycle regularly for those shorter journeys they do not make on foot.”

 

8.10               The Forum has completed a number of cycle related research tasks since its original establishment, and has recently provided assistance with the assessment of existing cycling routes in the Borough, highlighting missing links, as well as identifying potential new strategic routes.

 

 

 

Action W5:  Actively encourage and promote walk to school initiatives.

Action W6:  Improve street signage with better pedestrian wayfinding and a reduction in footway clutter.

Action C5: Support the Maidstone Cycling Forum as a group to promote the cycling cause in the Borough.

Action C6: Improve cycle security and parking at all key transport hubs and public amenities (including schools, healthcare facilities and retail locations).

Action C7: Encourage employers to incorporate cycling into Workplace Travel Plans.

Action C8: Promote cycling in schools through School Travel Plans.

Action C9: Ensure all cycle routes are fully advertised and signposted within the Borough.

Action C10:  Revise and update the “Explore Maidstone Walking and Cycling Map” to extend coverage to the wider Borough and indicate destinations in neighbouring local authorities.   Map to be available both electronically and in paper format.

Action C11:  Standardise and clarify the requirements of planning applications with respect to the provision of walking and cycling facilities, to promote the use of these active travel modes.

Action C12:  MBC, KCC and the Maidstone Cycle Forum to identify opportunities to establish local cycling events.

Action

 
 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

9.0                   Monitoring the Cycling Strategy

9.1                   This Strategy will be regularly monitored alongside the ITS.

 

9.2                   Monitoring should take several forms including continuous automatic counters on cycle tracks and detailed route user surveys. This will enable a detailed database to be established which in turn can inform economic appraisals and health impact assessments in the borough.

 

9.3                   Details of the walking and cycling modal share targets are presented in Chapter XX of the ITS.  Progress against the ITS targets will be monitored using future census data, but cycle usage will be analysed on a more regular basis using the above data sources.  It is envisaged that the Walking and Cycling Strategy itself will be updated every five years, with the first update scheduled in 2021.

Action C13: MBC and KCC to identify locations throughout the cycle network where new automatic cycle counters should be installed to enable a detailed analysis of usage.  Installation to proceed as resources allow, but each new cycle infrastructure proposal will be assessed to see if an additional counter should be added to augment the data gathering process.

 
 

 

 

 

 

 


 


10.0               Proposed Development of the Walking and Cycling Network

10.1               If we are to achieve the aims set out in this strategy then the schemes chosen must create a network that appeals to both existing and potential pedestrians and cyclists. 

 

10.2               Planning and prioritisation of the development of the walking and cycling network in Maidstone Borough has been undertaken with input from the Maidstone Cycle Forum.  Proposals have been sifted on the grounds of likely technical and political deliverability.  Recommendations have been prepared and are split into the following geographical areas:

·         Maidstone Town Centre

·         North West Maidstone

·         South West Maidstone

·         North East Maidstone

·         South East Maidstone

·         Rural

 

For each of the above areas a map is provided which illustrates the recommended interventions.  These are described in the accompanying table, together with an indicative timetable for their implementation, potential funding sources and delivery partners.  [Maps to be completed]

 

10.3               As this is a strategy, it should be noted that the proposals are indicative only and that their implementation will be dependent upon securing the necessary funding and the completion of satisfactory feasibility design, detailed design and public consultation exercises at the appropriate stage.

 

 

 

 

 

 


Maidstone Town Centre

Walking and Cycling Strategy Action

Proposal

Type of Infrastructure Required

Timescale for Delivery

Potential Funding Sources

Delivery Partners

Short term    <5 years

Medium term     5-10 years

Long term >10 years

MTC1

Widening of existing Wat Tyler Way shared use footway.

Footway widening on east side of Wat Tyler Way between Ashford Road and Chancery Lane, amended carriageway markings (reduced lane widths).

 

 

 

CIL

Integrated Transport block funding

·         KCC

·         MBC

MTC2

Upgraded crossing facilities on A249 Sittingbourne Road at Union Street/Vintners Road junction. 

Signage, upgrading of controlled crossing to toucan standard, widening of footway alongside Sittingbourne Road, surfacing.

 

 

 

CIL

Integrated Transport block funding

·         KCC

·         MBC

MTC3

Improved cycle connectivity between High Street and Lockmeadow. 

Package of measures to improve cycle facilities between High Street and Barker Road.  Signage, upgrading of Bishops Way controlled crossing to toucan standard, expansion of cycle/pedestrian waiting areas, relocation of lamp columns/street furniture, cycle facilities on Barker Road, surfacing.

 

 

 

CIL

Integrated Transport block funding

Local Enterprise Partnership (LSTF)

·         KCC

·         MBC

MTC4

Enable cycling between College Road and Brunswick Street. 

Upgrade existing footpath link between A229 Hayle Road and Brunswick Street.  Install toucan crossing on A229 Hayle Road to facilitate cycle access to and from College Road.

Amended Right of Way Order required, signage, surfacing.

 

 

 

CIL

Integrated Transport block funding

·         KCC

·         MBC

MTC5

Package of measures to improve pedestrian environment and public realm along Week Street, incorporating appropriate access for cyclists.

Allow cycle access to Week Street:

1)      at all times between Station Road and Union Street (contraflow required);

2)      from 8pm to 8am between Union Street and High Street.

Cycle parking facilities to be provided within improved public realm.  Amended Traffic Regulation Order (TRO) required, signage on entries to pedestrian priority zone, contraflow road markings, surfacing (to indicate cycle route).

 

 

 

CIL

·         KCC

·         MBC

·         Town Centre Partnership

MTC6

Package of measures to improve linkages between River Medway and Week Street, including pedestrianisation of Earl Street. 

Pedestrianisation of Earl Street between Pudding Lane and Week Street to ensure cycle access is maintained.  Cycle parking facilities to be provided within improved public realm.

 

 

 

 

·         KCC

·         MBC

·         Town Centre Partnership

MTC7

New cycle route between Week Street (NCN17) and Medway Valley towpath, serving Kent History & Library Centre.

Signage, footway widening Stacey Street and Fairmeadow, new direct shared use footway from James Whatman Way to Fairmeadow, upgrade existing crossing facilities to south of A229/James Whatman Way roundabout to toucan standard.

 

 

 

CIL

S106

·         KCC

·         MBC

MTC8

Upgrade existing footway across River Medway between Maidstone Barracks (Buckland Hill) and Maidstone East (Station Road) for shared pedestrian/cycle use.

Signage (shared use, priority to pedestrians).

 

 

 

CIL

S106

Integrated Transport block funding

·         KCC

·         MBC

MTC8

Medway Valley Towpath

Towpath improvements and making of Cycle Tracks Order to create a cycle route between Allington Lock and East Farleigh.

 

 

 

Local Enterprise Partnership (LSTF)

MBC (New Homes Bonus)

 

·         KCC

·         MBC

MTC9

Scotney Gardens – Whatman Park Towpath

On west side of River Medway, new section of towpath and improvements to existing towpath.

 

 

 

S106

·         KCC

·         MBC

MTC10

Wayfinding Strategy – package of measures to introduce themed trails and quarters in the town centre to improve legibility.

Additional signage to benefit pedestrians and cyclists within town centre.   Monoliths and finger posts at key locations:

  • Barracks, East, West rail stations
  • Outside shopping centres/main shopping streets
  • Outside major attractions (e.g. museum, theatre)

 

 

 

CIL

·         KCC

·         MBC

·         Town Centre Partnership

·         South Eastern Rail Franchisee

·         Network Rail

·         Bus Operators

MTC11

Public realm improvements on King Street between Wyke Manor Road and existing bus station access.

Footpath improvements, cycle facilities.  Upgraded crossing facilities at junction with Church Street.

 

 

 

CIL

S106 (Church Street crossing improvements)

·          

MTC12

New River Medway pedestrian/cycle crossing

Provision of shared use pedestrian/cycle footbridge linking St Peter’s Street and Earl Street.

 

 

 

CIL

·         KCC

·         MBC

MTC13

New cycle parking facilities at Maidstone West railway station.

Install five cycle stands with shelter.

 

 

 

Local Enterprise Partnership (LSTF)

·         MBC

·         South Eastern Rail Franchisee

·         KCC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

North West Maidstone

Walking and Cycling Strategy Action

Proposal

Type of Infrastructure Required

Timescale for Delivery

Potential Funding Sources

Delivery Partners

Short term <5 years

Medium term 5-10 years

Long term >10 years

NWM1

Footway widening on north side of A20 London Road between Castle Road and Grace Avenue to create two-way cycle path. 

Signage, surfacing, reconfiguration of Grace Avenue eastbound bus stop layby.

 

 

 

CIL

Integrated Transport block funding

·         KCC

·         MBC

NWM2

Upgraded crossing facilities at Castle Road/London Road junction. 

Install controlled crossing facilities on all arms.  Dropped kerbs, tactile paving, signage.

 

 

 

CIL

Integrated Transport block funding

·         KCC

·         MBC

NWM3

Create new cycle route between Newbury Avenue and Sandling via Allington Lock, providing low traffic route to Museum of Kent Life.

Signage, footway improvements (widening, dropped kerbs, tactile paving) between Forstal Road and Sandling.

 

 

 

CIL

Integrated Transport block funding

Local Enterprise Partnership (LSTF)

·         KCC

·         MBC

 

South West Maidstone

Walking and Cycling Strategy Action

Proposal

Type of Infrastructure Required

Timescale for Delivery

Potential Funding Sources

Delivery Partners

Short term <5 years

Medium term 5-10 years

Long term >10 years

SWM1

Cycle route on east side of Hermitage Lane, linking Barming rail station (TMBC) with traffic free cycle path to Queen’s Road (Cherry Orchard).

Footway widening, signage, dropped kerbs, tactile paving.

 

 

 

S106

 

·         KCC

·         TMBC

·         MBC

·         South Eastern Rail Franchisee

SWM2

Cycle route between Giddyhorn Lane and Hermitage Lane (1.0km).

Surface existing footpath and upgrade to bridleway status, signage, lighting (?)

 

 

 

S106

CIL

·         KCC

·         MBC

SWM3

Closure of North Pole Road to through motor traffic to facilitate creation of cycle route from Barming to Kingshill.

Stopping Up Order, bollards, signage.

 

 

 

 

CIL

Integrated Transport block funding

·         TMBC

·         KCC

·         MBC

SWM4

Creation of cycle route from Medway Valley towpath (Unicumes Lane) to Hackney Road and westwards to South Street.  This would provide an alternative cycle route during floods at East Farleigh.

Signage, upgrade existing footpaths to bridleway status, vegetation clearance (e.g. east of Farleigh Lane).

 

 

 

CIL

Integrated Transport block funding

·         KCC

·         MBC

 

North East Maidstone

Walking and Cycling
Strategy Action

Proposal

Type of Infrastructure Required

Timescale for Delivery

Potential Funding Sources

Delivery Partners

Short term <5 years

Medium term 5-10 years

Long term >10 years

NEM1

Package of highway improvements between Bearsted and New Cut Roundabouts.

Provision of new toucan crossing and combined foot/cycle way between the roundabouts as part of dual carriageway works.

 

 

 

S106

·         KCC

·         MBC

NEM2

Package of highway improvements at M20 Junction 7.

As part of Junction 7 signalisation, creation of a new signal controlled pedestrian route through the gyratory.

 

 

 

S106

·         Highways England

·         KCC

·         MBC

NEM3

Cycle friendly traffic management measures on Sandling Lane/ Penenden Heath Road

Feasibility study required but potential measures include:

  • Reduction in speed limit from 40mph to 30mph
  • Vertical/horizontal traffic calming
  • Footway widening to facilitate shared pedestrian/cycle use

 

 

 

CIL

Integrated Transport block funding

·         KCC

·         MBC

NEM4

New cycle parking facilities at Bearsted railway station

Installation of four cycle stands accommodating eight cycles.

 

 

 

Local Enterprise Partnership (LSTF)

·         MBC

·         South Eastern Rail Franchisee

·         KCC

NEM5

Package of improvement measures on the A20 Ashford Road between Bearsted and Woodcut Farm

In conjunction with pedestrian refuges and bus stops outside site EMP1(5), improvements to north side footway to facilitate shared use by pedestrians and cyclists, to connect with existing advisory cycle routes in Bearsted

 

 

 

S106/S278

CIL

Local Enterprise Partnership (LSTF)

·         MBC

·         KCC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

South East Maidstone

Walking and Cycling Strategy Action

Proposal

Type of Infrastructure Required

Timescale for Delivery

Potential Funding Sources

Delivery Partners

Short term <5 years

Medium term 5-10 years

Long term >10 years

SEM1

Creation of a cycle route from Sutton Road to The Quarries (3.0km), south of Local Plan site H1(10) and Langley Loch.  This would connect with an existing advisory cycle route to Loose and the proposed Loose “Greenway”.

Signage, surfacing, existing footpaths upgraded                                                  to bridleway status.

 

 

 

S106

·         Developers

·         KCC

·         MBC

SEM2

Loose “Greenway” – cycle route from Kirkdale to Old Drive and northwards to Cripple Street TBC

Signage, surfacing, widening, existing footpaths upgraded to bridleway status.

 

 

 

 

·         KCC

·         MBC

·         Loose Parish Council

SEM3

Eastwards extension of Sutton Road cycle routes to provide sustainable transport access to housing sites H1(7), (8), (9) and (10).

Signage, surfacing, lighting, toucan crossing(s) on A274 to connect housing sites to north and south of road and to connect with existing cycle routes through Shepway/Park Wood.

 

 

 

S106

·         S106

·         KCC

·         MBC

SEM4

Crossing facilities on A274 near Horseshoes Lane junction to provide sustainable transport access to amenities on housing site H1(10) for residents of Langley/Langley Heath.

Dropped kerbs, tactile paving.  Pedestrian refuge or controlled puffin/toucan crossing – details TBC.

 

 

 

S106

·         S106

·         KCC

·         MBC

 

Rural Maidstone Borough

Walking and Cycling Strategy Action

Proposal

Type of Infrastructure Required

Timescale for Delivery

Potential Funding Sources

Delivery Partners

Short term <5 years

Medium term 5-10 years

Long term >10 years

RMB1

Creation of cycle route from Maidstone to Headcorn (and beyond to Biddenden)

Signage, quiet unclassified roads, some on-street cycle lanes/segregated cycle track (A274).

 

 

 

CIL

S106

·         KCC

·         MBC

·         Wealden DC

·         Sustrans

RMB2

Creation of cycle route from Maidstone to Staplehurst (and beyond to Cranbrook)

Signage, quiet unclassified roads, some on-street cycle lanes/segregated cycle track (A229).

 

 

 

CIL

S106

·         KCC

·         MBC

·         Wealden DC

·         Sustrans

RMB3

Creation of cycle route from Maidstone to Marden via Coxheath

Signage, quiet unclassified roads, some on-street cycle lanes/segregated cycle track.

 

 

 

CIL

S106

·         KCC

·         MBC

·         Sustrans

RMB4

Creation of cycle route from Medway Valley towpath to Paddock Wood via Laddingford

Signage, quiet unclassified roads.

 

 

 

CIL

S106

·         KCC

·         MBC

·         TWDC

·         Sustrans

RMB5

Creation of cycle route from Maidstone to Sittingbourne via A249 and quiet lanes

Signage, segregated shared use footways, possible toucan crossings.

 

 

 

CIL

Local Enterprise Partnership (LSTF)

·         KCC

·         Highways England

·         MBC

·         Swale BC

·         Sustrans

RMB6

Creation of cycle route from Maidstone to Harrietsham/Lenham via A20.

Signage, segregated shared use footways, possible toucan crossings.

 

 

 

CIL

S106

Local Enterprise Partnership (LSTF)

·         KCC

·         MBC

·         Sustrans

RMB7

Creation of Maidstone – Tonbridge cycle route via Medway Valley

From Allington Lock northwards.  Signage, anticipated mixture of riverside towpath, segregated cycle track and quiet unclassified roads.

 

 

 

CIL

Local Enterprise Partnership (LSTF)

·         KCC

·         MBC

·         TMBC

·         Medway Council

·         Sustrans

·         Medway Valley Countryside Partnership

RMB8

Creation of “Maidstone Ring” cycle route linking Rural Service Centres and other smaller settlements, e.g. Bredhurst, Wichling, Lenham (via Swale), Headcorn, Staplehurst (via TWDC), Marden, Yalding and via River Medway to Maidstone

Signage, some segregated cycle track, on-street cycle lanes.

 

 

 

CIL

Local Enterprise Partnership (LSTF)

·         KCC

·         MBC

·         TWDC

·         Sustrans

RMB9

Coxheath Sustainable Transport Package

TBC – check Neighbourhood Plan

New footway link from site H1 (45) to Mill Lane, Coxheath

 

 

 

S106

·         KCC

·         MBC

·         Coxheath Parish Council

RMB10

New cycle parking facilities at Marden railway station.

TBC

 

 

 

S106

·         South Eastern Rail Franchisee

·         KCC

·         MBC


 

Walking and Cycling Strategy Action

Proposal

Type of Infrastructure Required

Timescale for Delivery

Potential Funding Sources

Delivery Partners

Short term <5 years

Medium term 5 – 10 years

Long term > 10 years

RMB11

Marden Sustainable Transport Package

·         Upgrading of Goudhurst Road zebra crossing to pelican crossing

·         New pedestrian crossing on Church Green

·         Traffic calming measures

 

 

 

 

S106

·         S106

·         KCC

·         MBC

RMB12

Harrietsham Sustainable Transport Package

·         Pedestrian crossing improvements/traffic calming on A20

·         Cycle route between railway station and primary school

·         Additional cycle parking at railway station

·         Footway enhancements

 

 

 

S106

Local Enterprise Partnership (LSTF)

·         KCC

·         MBC

·         South Eastern Rail Franchisee

·         Harrietsham Parish Council

RMB13

Cycle parking Hollingbourne

Five cycle stands and CCTV

 

 

 

Local Enterprise Partnership (LSTF)

·         South Eastern Rail Franchisee

·         KCC

·         MBC

RMB14

Improved cycle parking at Headcorn railway station

Installation of shelter over existing cycle hoops.

 

 

 

Local Enterprise Partnership (LSTF)

·         South Eastern Rail Franchisee

·         KCC

·         MBC

RMB15

Headcorn Sustainable Transport Package

·         Crossing improvements at A274 Wheeler Street.

·         Footway link from EMP1(4) to A274, Headcorn

 

 

 

S106

 

·         KCC

·         MBC

·         Headcorn Parish Council

RMB16

Lenham Sustainable Transport Package

Traffic calming, pedestrian crossing facilities on Ham Lane and Old Ashford Road

 

 

 

CIL

 

RMB17

Staplehurst Rail Station Forecourt Improvements

·         Footway/crossing improvements on Station Approach

·         Additional cycle parking

 

 

 

CIL

S106

South Eastern Rail Franchisee

·         South Eastern Rail Franchisee

·         Bus Operators

RMB18

Staplehurst Sustainable Transport Package

Package to improve sustainable transport infrastructure to include provision of pedestrian/cycle crossing on Headcorn Road, ped/cycle links to railway station as well as bus infrastructure, reduced speed limit, potential traffic calming

 

 

 

S106

·         KCC

·         MBC

RMB19

Yalding Sustainable Transport Package

Further work required to determine specific interventions.

 

 

 

CIL

South Eastern Rail Franchisee

·         KCC

·         MBC

·         South Eastern Rail Franchisee

·         Yalding Parish Council

 

 


 



[1] Department for Transport, Draft Cycling Delivery Plan, October 2014, https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/cycling-delivery-plan-informal-consultation

[2] Department for Communities and Local Government, National Planning Policy Framework, March 2012,  https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-planning-policy-framework--2

[3] All Parliamentary Cycling Group, Get Britain Cycling, April 2013,

http://allpartycycling.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/get-britain-cycling1.pdf

[4] National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Walking and Cycling: Local Measures to Promote Walking and Cycling as Forms of Travel or Recreation, November 2012, http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ph41

[6] London School of Economics, The British Cycling Economy: ‘Gross Cycling Product’ Report, August 2011,

http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/38063/1/BritishCyclingEconomy.pdf

[7] British Medical Association, Healthy Transport = Healthy Lives, July 2012, http://bma.org.uk/transport

[8] Department for Transport, National Travel Survey 2013, https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/national-travel-survey-2013

[9] Department for Transport, Value for Money Assessment for Cycling Grants, August 2014,

https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/348943/vfm-assessment-ofcycling-grants.pdf   

[10] Bureau Veritas, Maidstone Borough Council LAQM Progress Report, October 2013, http://www.maidstone.gov.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/9661/Maidstone-Town-Air-Quality-Action-Plan-April-2013.pdf

[11] Department for Food, Environment and Rural Affairs, Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales

and Northern Ireland, July 2007, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69336/pb12654-air-quality-strategy-vol1-070712.pdf

[12] TRL, Footways and Cycle Route Design: Construction and Maintenance Guide, 2003,  http://trl.co.uk/reportspublications/trl-reports/report/?reportid=6180  

[14] New Ways to Work – Best practice guide for preparing travel plans in Kent 2011 https://shareweb.kent.gov.uk/Documents/roads-and-transport/getting-around/Travel%20Plan%202010.pdf