Houses of multiple occupation standards

Management of houses in multiple occupation (HMO)

We aim to ensure that all HMOs in the borough are maintained and managed in a proper manner so that tenants are able to live in safe conditions.  

In general every manager should ensure that the house is properly managed, and that:

  • the common parts (corridors, staircases, and any shared kitchens and bathrooms) are kept clean and in good repair
  • the heating, cooking, washing and toilet facilities are maintained in good repair and proper working order
  • the gas, water and electricity supplies are maintained in a safe and fully functioning condition
  • all living accommodation is kept in good repair
  • all rooms are in a clean condition at the start of a tenancy
  • any fire alarms and other fire precautions are maintained in full working order
  • the fire escapes are kept free from obstruction
  • the windows are maintained in repair and good order
  • any outbuildings, yards and gardens are kept in a reasonable condition
  • refuse and litter is not allowed to accumulate, and suitable refuse bins are provided and maintained
  • a notice is displayed in the house showing the name, address and phone number of the manager or agent

Standards of repair

The Housing Standards rating system applies to all properties. The hazard categories are:

  • damp and mould growth
  • excess heat
  • excess cold
  • asbestos
  • biocides
  • carbon monoxide
  • lead
  • radiation
  • uncombusted fuel gas
  • volatile organic compounds
  • crowding and space
  • entry by intruders
  • lighting
  • noise
  • domestic hygiene, pest and refuse
  • food safety
  • personal hygiene
  • water supply
  • falls associated with baths
  • falling on level surfaces
  • falling on the stairs
  • falling between levels
  • electrical hazards
  • fire
  • flames and hot surfaces
  • collision and entrapment
  • explosions
  • position and operability amenities
  • structural collapse

If we inspect your property and find that there are hazards in your property you will be informed. We have a duty to act on the worst hazards (category 1) and a power to act on all others.

We can:

  • serve an improvement notice requiring remedial works
  • make a prohibition order, which closes the whole or part of a dwelling or restricts the number of permitted occupants
  • take emergency action
  • serve a hazard awareness notice
  • make a demolition order (only for category 1 hazards)
  • declare a clearance area (only for category 1 hazards)

Minimum room sizes

We have adopted minimum room size standards depending on the type of HMO.

Minimum individual room sizes for one or two persons
Use of room One person Two persons
Sleeping area 9m2 or 100 sq ft 14m2 or 150 sq ft
Kitchen area 4.5m2 or 50 sq ft 4.5m2 or 50 sq ft
Minimum shared room sizes for groups
Use of room 1-5 people 6-10 people
Living area 11m2 or 120 sq ft 16.5m2 or 180 sq ft
Kitchen area 7m2 or 75 sq ft 10m2 or 110 sq ft
Kitchen/diner 11.5m2 or 125 sq ft 19.5m2 or 210 sq ft

Rooms are measured from wall to wall adding any additional floor area (e.g. built in cupboards). Then discount any projection into the floor area (chimney breasts, etc.) and any floor area with a ceiling height of less than 150cm.

A person is determined by age, therefore a child under one is discounted as a person, children aged one to 10 are treated as 'half' a person and those 11 or over as one person.

We do not consider single rooms to be suitable for more than two persons.

If a living room is provided we may allow a bedroom which is under the minimum size given above.

Amenity standards

Facilities within HMOs are required to meet certain standards depending on the number of occupants. The facilities should be in a convenient position to enable people to use them comfortably.


  • one bath (min length 167cm) shared by up to five persons or one shower (min size 80 x 80cm) shared by up to five persons
  • one toilet with wash hand basin shared by up to five persons
  • one separate toilet with wash hand basin shared by up to five persons


  • cooker - two hot rings plus grill and oven per unit, or four hot rings plus grill and oven shared by up to five persons
  • one sink and drainer with hot and cold water per unit, or one sink and drainer with hot and cold water shared by up to five persons
  • worktop - minimum size 100 x 50 cm per unit, or minimum size 200 x 50cm shared by up to five persons
  • food storage - one standard base unit (not sink unit) (h)90 x (w) 50 x (d) 60cm per person
  • one standard size fridge with freezer per unit, or one standard sized fridge and freezer shared by up to five persons
  • two free electrical sockets above worktop per unit, or four free electrical sockets above worktop shared by up to five persons

Fire precautions

People who live in HMOs are at a greater risk of dying in a fire than those who live in a house occupied by a family.

Fire safety is an important aspect of our involvement with HMOs. We require landlords to improve the level of fire precautions if they do not meet an acceptable standard.

All properties are assessed on an individual basis, you are advised to contact the Housing Standards team for advice before you carry out any works.

Contact us



Housing Standards,
Maidstone Borough Council,
Maidstone House,
King Street,
ME15 6JQ

You will also need to obtain a fire risk assessment. To find a fire risk assessor please visit the Kent Fire and Rescue Service. Guidance can also be found on GOV.UK.

In general there should be:

  • a mains-powered interlinked smoke detection system, the size and type will be dependent on the size and type of the HMO
  • a fire blanket fixed to a wall in each kitchen
  • night latch locks rather than mortice locks if doors are to be provided with locks.

In addition we may require:

  • 30 minutes fire resistance to walls and ceilings
  • fire doors to the rooms off the staircase and landings
  • emergency lighting at all changes of direction and level

Gas safety

Any appliance which burns a fossil fuel (such as gas, coal, or oil) has the potential to produce carbon monoxide (CO). CO is a poisonous gas which has no smell, colour, or taste and which is responsible for the deaths of around 60 people each year. The symptoms of CO poisoning are easily mistaken for those of other commonplace illnesses such as colds or flu.

Under the Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998, all landlords have a duty to ensure:

  • that gas appliances provided within rented accommodation are properly maintained
  • all gas appliances must be checked for gas safety at least once every 12 months
  • all works to gas appliances must, by law, be carried out by CORGI Registered gas installers
  • tenants must be provided with copies of the CORGI gas safety certificate within 28 days of the safety check being completed

Failure to ensure that the gas appliances are checked for gas safety as required by the regulations is an offence which is enforced by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE).  

Any person who carries out works to gas appliances must be Gas Safe Registered and should carry an identity card. If you would like to check a gas installer’s Gas Safe Registration please visit the Gas Safe Register website.

Electrical safety

There are a number of measures that must be taken to ensure the safety of the electrical installation:

  • electrical repairs should be carried out by competent persons. To find a competent person please check the competent person website
  • electrical Installation Condition Reports (EICR) must be carried out at a minimum of five yearly intervals. The report will certify that there are no dangerous defects.
  • if there are any Code 1 or Code 2 defects they must be resolved within 28 days of the report. You must inform your tenants and us when resolved.
  • you must provide a copy of the Electrical Installation Condition Report (or EIC for installations under five years old) to your tenants before they move in.
  • you must provide a copy of the Electrical Installation Condition Report when we ask for it or if Code 1 or 2 defects are found.
  • all fire alarm, smoke detection and emergency lighting systems should be inspected periodically (as per guidance) by a competent electrician
  • sufficient electrical sockets outlets should be provided to prevent overloading and the use of trailing extension cables. The following number of double sockets should be provided as a minimum:
    • four sockets in the kitchen
    • three sockets in the living room
    • two sockets in the bedroom
    • one socket in the hallway and landing(s)

Where electrical installations are found to have Code 1 or 2 defects we may serve notices requiring remedial works to remove the risk to the tenants.

For more information please see the Electrical Safety Standards in the Private Rented Sector (England) Regulations 2020.

Fire safety of furniture and furnishings

The Furniture and Furnishings (Fire) (Safety) Regulations 1988 set levels of fire resistance for domestic upholstered furnishings. These regulations are enforced by Trading Standards Officers from Kent County Council.

Upholstered furniture filled with polyurethane foam tends to burn quickly and gives off large amounts of smoke and poisonous fumes. Older or second-hand furniture can only be used if it has the appropriate label showing that it is cigarette and match resistant.

The regulations apply to:

  • beds, mattresses, headboards and pillows
  • sofa beds, futons, scatter cushions and seat pads
  • loose and stretch covers for furniture

The regulations do not apply to:

  • sleeping bags or loose covers for mattresses
  • bed clothes, duvets and pillow cases
  • carpets and curtains

New furniture that complies with the regulations is sold with a permanent label stating that it is cigarette and match resistant. Landlords should ensure that they do not let accommodation with furniture that is not fire-resistant.

Energy efficiency

An energy efficient house is more comfortable to live in and costs less money to run. The advantages of an energy efficient house include:

  • increased asset value of the property
  • reduced maintenance and redecoration costs for the landlord
  • increased tenant satisfaction and fewer complaints
  • reduced problems with damp and mould growth

Minimum Energy Efficiency Regulations:

Private residential landlords cannot unreasonably refuse their tenant’s request for energy efficiency improvements where they can be carried out at no cost to the landlord.

Private landlords letting residential properties need to ensure their properties reach an EPC (energy performance certificate) rating of E or above, before granting a new tenancy. HMOs are exempt from being required to have an EPC but if one is registered for the property it will need to meet the regulations.  

If the landlord wants to rely on an exemption they will need to register the exemption on the National Exemptions Register. Failure to comply with the regulations, including failure to register an exemption can result in a fine.